Order: Columbiformes

Family: Columbiidae

Scientific name: Chalcophaps indica, Linnaeus, 1758

IUCN Red list status- Least Concern

Did you know?

  1. Common Emerald Dove is the state bird of Tamil Nadu.
  2. Common Emerald Dove is also known as Green Dove and Green Winged Pigeon


Common Emerald Dove is a medium-sized pigeon, measuring 25 to 30 cm in length and weighing 90 to 170 grams. They have bright glossy green back and wings. The male has a pale bluish gray crown and nape, a white stripe on the forehead that extends over and behind the eyes and a white patch on the edge of the shoulders. The female lacks these features. The Common Emerald Dove have dark vinous pink chin, throat, upper breast and the sides of the neck. The flight feathers and tail are dark gray. There are broad white and black bars on the lower back. The lower belly is greyish brown. The bill is bright red and irises are dark brown. The eye-ring is gray and feet are greyish red. The flight is swift, strong and direct.


The diet of common emerald dove consists mainly of seeds and fruits. Fruits, seeds, berries, figs and insects are their primary food. They forage on the ground mainly during day time solitarily or in small pairs. They roost on the tree branches.


The natural habitat of Common Emerald Dove species includes tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, mangrove forests, moist montane forests and evergreen forests. They are also seen in well wooded areas. In India they can be seen throughout the Western Ghats and Nilgiri hills, some areas of Eastern Ghats and Himalayas. They are also seen in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Reproductive Behaviour

Common Emerald Dove species normally breeds from January to May. They are monogamous and territorial. In Courtship, male performs a dance by bobbing its head. Emerald dove species nest on the fork in trees. The nest is a flimsy structure built with sticks and twigs. Normally two cream-colored eggs are laid. Both of the parents, take part in nest building, incubation of 13-15 days and young ones care. The hatchlings are initially fed with crop-milk by the parents.


The call is a repeated, low-pitched, mournful cooing sound. They also produce a nasal “hoo-hoo-hoon“.

Related Species and Sub Species

  • Chalcophaps indica. indica of Southeast Asia
  • Chalcophaps indica robinsoniof Sri Lanka
  • Chalcophaps indica maximaof Andaman Islands
  • Chalcophaps indica augustaof Nicobar Islands
  • Pacific Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps longirostris)
  • Stephen’s Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps stephani)

Migratory Behaviour

Non Migratory, Common Resident